What is IoC (Inversion of Control)
Category : Interview Questions
| Sub Category : Spring Boot Interview Questions | By Prasad Bonam Last updated: 2023-08-14 16:21:42
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IoC (Inversion of Control):
In the context of the Spring Framework, an IoC (Inversion of Control) container is a core component that manages the instantiation, configuration, and lifecycle of objects. The IoC container is responsible for controlling the flow of an application by managing the relationships and dependencies between various components.
There are several IoC containers available in the Spring Framework, with the two main ones being:
BeanFactory: This is the most basic IoC container provided by Spring. It is responsible for creating and managing beans (objects) and their dependencies based on configuration metadata such as XML files, Java annotations, or Java-based configuration classes. The BeanFactory provides basic container functionality, but it may not be as feature-rich as the more advanced container, which is the...
ApplicationContext: The ApplicationContext extends the functionality of the BeanFactory and adds additional features like support for internationalization, event propagation, resource loading, and more. It is the preferred IoC container for most applications, as it provides a richer set of features compared to the BeanFactory.
The IoC container works by allowing you to define your beans and their relationships in configuration files (XML or Java-based) or using annotations. It manages the instantiation of these beans, handles their dependencies, and provides them when requested by other parts of your application.
Here is a basic example of XML-based configuration for defining beans in the Spring IoC container:
<bean id="userService" class="com.example.UserService">
<property name="userRepository" ref="userRepository"/>
<bean id="userRepository" class="com.example.UserRepository"/>
In this example, the IoC container will create instances of
UserRepository, inject the
userRepository instance into the
userService instance, and manage their lifecycles.
Springs IoC container promotes the concept of loose coupling by allowing you to focus on defining beans and their relationships rather than manually managing object creation and dependency injection. This helps in writing modular, maintainable, and testable code.
In Spring Boot, the concept of IoC (Inversion of Control) and the associated IoC container remain fundamental, just as in the Spring Framework. Spring Boot is built on top of the Spring Framework and aims to simplify the process of creating production-ready applications, including the configuration and setup of the IoC container.
Spring Boot primarily uses the same IoC container components as the Spring Framework, but it provides additional features and conventions to simplify the development process. The main IoC container components used in Spring Boot are:
ApplicationContext: Spring Boot uses ApplicationContext, which is an extended version of the BeanFactory in the Spring Framework. The ApplicationContext provides more features and functionalities, making it the preferred choice for managing beans and their lifecycles in Spring Boot applications.
Auto-Configuration: One of the key features of Spring Boot is its auto-configuration mechanism. Spring Boot automatically configures beans and components based on the dependencies you include in your project. For example, if you include a database library in your project, Spring Boot will automatically configure a database connection pool bean without requiring explicit configuration.
Component Scan: Spring Boot simplifies component scanning by providing default scanning locations. It will automatically scan and discover components, such as Spring beans annotated with
@Repository, and more, without needing to specify explicit configuration.
Property Injection: Spring Boot streamlines the process of injecting properties into beans by providing mechanisms to externalize configuration properties. You can define properties in various formats (YAML, properties files, etc.), and Spring Boot will automatically inject them into your beans.
Starter Dependencies: Spring Boot introduces the concept of "starter" dependencies, which are pre-configured sets of libraries for common use cases (e.g., web applications, databases, messaging). These starters include all the necessary dependencies and configurations to get started quickly with specific types of applications.
Conditional Configuration: Spring Boot enables conditional configuration based on the presence or absence of certain classes or properties. This allows you to customize the behavior of your application without writing a lot of conditional code.
In summary, Spring Boot builds upon the Spring Frameworks IoC container concepts and adds convenient features and conventions to streamline the development process. It provides auto-configuration, component scanning, property injection, starter dependencies, and more, making it easier to create standalone, production-ready Spring applications with minimal configuration effort.