Scala for-loop and yield

Category : Scala | Sub Category : Scala Programs | By Prasad Bonam Last updated: 2020-10-08 03:18:08 Viewed : 487


Scala for-loop and yield

In Scala, the for loop is a powerful construct that can be used for iterating over collections and sequences. When combined with yield, it becomes a powerful tool for creating new collections by transforming or filtering elements from existing ones.

Here is the basic syntax of a for loop with yield:

scala
val result = for (element <- collection) yield { // Transformation or filtering logic transformedElement }
  • collection: This is the collection you want to iterate over, such as an Array, List, or Range.

  • element: This represents each element of the collection as you iterate over it.

  • transformedElement: This is the result of applying some transformation or filtering logic to the element. You can perform operations on element and produce a new value.

  • result: This is the resulting collection that will hold the transformed or filtered elements.

Here is an example to illustrate how a for loop with yield works:

scala
val numbers = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) val doubledNumbers = for (num <- numbers) yield { num * 2 } println(doubledNumbers)

In this example, we have a list of numbers, and we want to create a new list called doubledNumbers where each element is doubled. The for loop with yield takes each element from the numbers list, multiplies it by 2, and adds the result to the doubledNumbers list.

Output:

scss
List(2, 4, 6, 8, 10)

The for loop with yield is a concise way to create a new collection based on the elements of an existing collection, while also applying a transformation or filtering operation. Its often used when you want to perform such operations on all elements of a collection and collect the results into a new collection.


for loops and expressions syntax as follows

 ·        for loop with block syntax 

for( i <- range){  

    // statements to be executed  

}      

·        for loop without block syntax 

for (arg <- args) println(arg)     

·        for loop with "x to y" syntax

for (i <- 0 to 5) println(i) 

·        for loop “x to y by" syntax 

for (i <- 0 to 10 by 2) println(i) 

yield keword 

You can also add the yield keyword to for-loops to create for-expressions that yield a result. Here is a for-expression that doubles each value in the sequence 1 to 5:

val x = for (i <- 1 to 5) yield i * 2 

For each iteration of your for loop, yield generates a value which will be remembered. Its like the for loop has a buffer you cant see, and for each iteration of your for loop another item is added to that buffer.

so a Map yields a Map, a List yields a List, and so on.    

Example:

Following example illustrates about Scala for loop and  Yield

Save the file as − ForLoopAndYield.scala

 ForLoopAndYield.scala  //File name

package runnerdev

object ForLoopAndYield extends App { 

  for (x <- 0 to 5) { //range expression 

    println("x " + x)

  }

   // "x to y by"

  for (i <- 0 to 10 by 2) {

    println("x to y by " + i)

  }

  //yield keyword -for-expression that doubles each value in the   sequence 1 to 5

  val multiVal = for (i <- 1 to 5) yield i * 2

  println("multiVal " + multiVal); 

  //for-expression that iterates over a list of strings

  val animals = List("ant", "bat", "cat", "elephant") 

  val animalLengths = for {

    f <- animals

    if f.length > 4

  } yield f.length

  println("animalLengths " + animalLengths);

}

compile and run the above example as follows 

scala> scalac ForLoopAndYield.scala

scala> scala ForLoopAndYield

OutPut:

x 0

x 1

x 2

x 3

x 4

x 5

x to y by 0

x to y by 2


val colors = List("red", "green", "blue") val fruits = List("apple", "banana", "cherry") val combinations = for { color <- colors fruit <- fruits } yield { s"$color $fruit" } combinations.foreach(println)

Output:

red apple red banana red cherry green apple green banana green cherry blue apple blue banana blue cherry

In this example, we use nested for loops with yield to create combinations of colors and fruits. Each combination is stored as a string in the combinations list.

Example 4: Generating a Sequence

scala
val squares = for (x <- 1 to 5) yield { x * x } println(squares)

Output:

scss
Vector(1, 4, 9, 16, 25)

Here, we generate a sequence of squares from 1 to 5 using a for loop with yield.

These examples demonstrate how you can use for loops with yield to transform or filter elements in collections, create new collections, and generate sequences based on existing data.

In Scala, yield is used within a for comprehension to produce a new collection by applying transformations or filters to the elements of an existing collection. Essentially, it allows you to create a new collection from an existing one while specifying how each element should be transformed or filtered.

Here is the basic syntax of a for comprehension with yield:

scala
val result = for (element <- collection) yield { // Transformation or filtering logic transformedElement }
  • collection: The collection you want to iterate over.

  • element: Represents each element of the collection as you iterate over it.

  • transformedElement: The result of applying some transformation or filtering logic to element.

  • result: The resulting collection that holds the transformed or filtered elements.

Here is an example:

scala
val numbers = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) val squaredNumbers = for (num <- numbers) yield { num * num }

In this example, the for comprehension iterates over each element (num) in the numbers list and squares each element. The result is a new list called squaredNumbers containing the squared values.

Output:

scss
List(1, 4, 9, 16, 25)

The yield keyword is especially useful when you want to apply a transformation to each element in a collection and collect the results into a new collection. It helps make your code more concise and readable.

You can also use if conditions within the for comprehension to filter elements:

scala
val numbers = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) val evenNumbers = for (num <- numbers if num % 2 == 0) yield { num }

In this case, only even numbers are included in the evenNumbers list.

Output:

scss
List(2, 4)

By combining for and yield, you can perform various transformations and filters on collections, making your code more expressive and functional.

with yield and without yield in scala examples:

In Scala, you can use for comprehensions both with and without yield to achieve different results. When you use yield, the for comprehension produces a new collection, while without yield, its used for performing side-effects or iterating through a collection without creating a new one. Here are examples of both cases:

With yield:

scala
val numbers = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) // Using yield to create a new list with squared numbers val squaredNumbers = for (num <- numbers) yield { num * num } println(squaredNumbers)

In this example, we use yield to create a new list, squaredNumbers, containing the squares of the elements from the numbers list.

Output:

scss
List(1, 4, 9, 16, 25)

Without yield:

scala
val numbers = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) // Without yield, performing a side-effect (printing each element) for (num <- numbers) { println(num) }

In this example, we dont use yield, so the for comprehension is used for its side-effect, which is printing each element of the numbers list.

Output:

1 2 3 4 5

In the second example, the for comprehension is used primarily for its iteration capability, and it doesnt produce a new collection. Its often used when you want to perform some action for each element in a collection without creating a new collection as a result.

With yield, you transform or filter elements from a collection and create a new collection with the results. Without yield, you can perform actions or side-effects on each element during the iteration.

Search
Related Articles

Leave a Comment: